The U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) is widely considered the strongest wildlife protection law in the world: almost every species listed is still with us today and many are on the path to recovery. Somewhat amazingly, it has earned this reputation despite being systematically underfunded for decades. This chapter reviews the consequences of resource limitation on ESA implementation. This includes a focus on central pieces of the ESA - sections 4, 6, 7, and 10 - and the challenges that span sections. Next, the chapter focuses on possible solutions to those challenges, including both section-specific and cross-cutting solutions.