Sand mines can be even more disruptive than oil and gas development, removing very large swaths of habitat. In West Texas, they have appeared suddenly and can expand quickly. In August 2017, we used satellite images to detect nine sand mining operations in or adjacent to lizard habitat in Texas. These operations provide sand for hydraulic fracking in the region. Neither FWS nor the comptroller anticipated this threat in 2012, so it was never addressed in the Texas plan nor in the decision to decline listing the lizard. According to our satellite image analysis, the mines have already disturbed 292 acres of lizard habitat and surrounding buffers. Based on lease data, the mines could eventually disturb or destroy over 23,000 acres (9.5 percent) of the lizard’s habitat and buffer in Texas.To see monthly images of the sand mines to date, follow the link to the interactive story map.